I thought this post might be a reasonable place for my translation from the ABC des Schneiderhandwerk - The Making of a Coat.
The Shoulder Pads (Cotton Supports)
We don't make cotton stuffing, rather, cotton underlay or cotton supports, because they are only supposed to serve the purpose (in Normal figures) of supporting the jacket shoulders and shaping them according to respective fashions. We all know of flat shoulder tops, high and wide shoulders, that can be achieved through the use of cotton padding. In physical deformities cotton has yet another use, namely, compensation for eg a hanging shoulder; then one can certainly speak of cotton padding. The cotton support is given great importance by many Masters and every tailor has his own views on the making of shoulder pads. The question as to whether the pad is to be attached above or under the canvas inlay [Einlageversteifung] alone causes great division. Here the shoulder pad will be shown basted out with cotton.
Abbildung 71. Shows a cardboard template of the size of the finished pad, two different sized pieces of inlay material, ( hair canvas, cut in warp and weft directions, see arrows) and two cotton pieces.
Abbildung 72. the two pieces of hair canvas are sewn together with machine stitches. Thus we increase the curvature of the small inner piece, so that it draws the larger piece with it. By the opposing spring-force of both parts we get a sturdy, longitudinal and transverse framework and respectively a framework for the cotton supports.
Abbildung 73. Here we can see the stitched parts and their effect.
Abbildung 74. The cotton parts are placed one on top of the other, like in Abb 71. and the rear edges plucked out to give the necessary contour. Possibly the plucked out cotton can even be placed between the two cotton pieces. We baste these prepared cotton parts on the sewn framework, and take care in working to preserve the intended shape of the shoulder pad. The basting stitches are passed 'through and through' thus vertically, through the cotton wool; transverse basting stitches can be only undertaken with difficulty because of the toughness of the cotton wool.
Abbildung 75, the finished cotton supports are trimmed after the basting and pressed. However, steam pressing is avoided in any case, since the volume of the shoulders pads would be lost.
Abbildungen 76 und 77 shows the jacket prepared for checking.